There are many types of cancer.The following discussion would elaborate each type of cancer and treatment options in brief

Bladder cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the lining of the bladder. Often multiple lesions present at presentation. Bladder cancer is more common among men than women. Nearly 90% of people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The earlier this cancer is found and treated the better is outcome.

Types of bladder cancer

The type of bladder cancer can affect treatment options because different
types can respond differently to treatments.

1-Transitional cell carcinoma:
This is by far the most common type of bladder cancer. These tumors are
divided into grades based on how the cells look under the microscope.

Low-grade transitional cell carcinoma:
the cells look more like normal cells tend to grow more slowly and have a
better outcome than higher-grade cancers

 

High-grade transitional cell carcinoma
: the cells look very abnormal.

2- Squamous cell carcinoma:
This type is much less common and is usually invasive.

 

3- Adenocarcinoma:
This type is also much less common and almost all are invasive.

 

4- Small cell:
A very small number of bladder cancers are of this type. Small cell
carcinoma rapidly progress to advance stage.

 

Symptoms

The most frequent symptom of bladder cancer is painless hematuria (blood in
the urine)

Difficult, frequent, or painful urination.

Pain in the pelvic region

Persistent fever.

 

What are the risk factors?

Smoking : Smokers get bladder cancer twice as often as people who don’t
smoke

Work exposure to toxic chemicals (such as those used in the rubber industry
as well as industrial dyes and solvents) is a potential risk factor

A family history of bladder cancer is associated with an increased risk.

Age: The risk of bladder cancer goes up with age.

Gender: Men get bladder cancer 4 times as often as women

Chronic bladder inflammation: Urinary infections, kidney and bladder stones
cause ongoing inflammation and indirectly linked to bladder cancer.

Bladder birth defects

Earlier treatment: Some drugs or radiation used to treat other cancers can
increase the risk of bladder cancer

Arsenic: Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to a higher risk of
bladder cancer.

Not drinking enough liquids: People who drink lots of liquids each day have
a lower rate of bladder cancer.

Prevention

The best way to lower your risk is

1- Stop smoking

2- Follow good work safety habits if you work with chemicals

3- Drinking plenty of fluids (mainly water) could lower the risk of bladder
cancer.

4- A diet high in fruits and vegetables also seems to protect against
bladder.

5- If you have a family history of the disease, get regular checkups.

Diagnosis

Patient history and physical examination

Urinalysis may be used to detect cancer cells and blood in the urine

Cystoscopy (the use of a thin, lighted tube that allows a surgeon to see
the bladder directly) and biopsy (removal and analysis of tissue samples)
are required for a definitive diagnosis

Radiological studies like, CT (computed tomography) scans, bone scan, PET
scan or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to determine the
nature of bladder abnormality and to see if cancer has spread

How is bladder cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health. The main types of treatment for bladder cancer are
surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy

Tumors in the early stages may be removed surgically through the
cystoscopy. Such tumors may recur, thus requiring repeated cystoscopy.

Recurrences may also be treated with chemotherapeutic agents and
immunotherapeutic agent instilled directly into the bladder with a
catheter.

If the cancer is advanced, removal of the entire bladder is required.
Radiation and chemotherapy may also be used.

In case of widespread bladder cancer systemic therapy is required.

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments which will probably be done every 3 to 6 months.

During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms, examine you, and
may order blood tests, cystoscopy or imaging studies such as CT (computed
tomography) scans.

Follow-up is needed to check for cancer recurrence or spread, as well as
possible side effects of certain treatments. This is the time for you to
ask your health care team any questions you need answered and to discuss
any concerns you might have.

What is Bone Cancer?

Bone tumors occur most commonly in children and adolescents and are less
common in older adults. Cancer involving the bone in older adults is most
commonly the result of metastatic spread from another cancer

Types of Bones Cancer

1- Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer. It most commonly
affects males between 10 and 25 years old, but can less commonly affect
older adults. It often occurs in the long bones of the arms, and legs
around the knees, hips and shoulders of children. This type of cancer is
often very aggressive with risk of spread to the lungs. The five-year
survival rate is about 65%.

2- Ewing’s sarcoma

Is the most aggressive bone tumor and affects younger people between 4-15
years of age. It is more common in males and is rare in people over 30
years old. It most commonly occurs in the middle of the long bones of the
arms and legs. The three-year survival rate is about 65%, but this rate is
much lower if there has been spread to other organs of the body.

3- Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is the most common sarcoma in people over 40 years old,
mainly in men. It is the second most common bone tumor overall; and
accounts for about 25% of all malignant bone tumors. These tumors arise
from the cartilage cells and can either be very aggressive or relatively
slow-growing.

Symptoms of bone cancer

1. Pain and tenderness in the affected bones. The pain is usually dull and
localized and is often worse at night.

2. Swelling or a noticeable tumor or mass around the site of a primary
tumor. (Swelling generally does not occur with metastatic tumors.)

3. Greater susceptibility to bone fractures (as healthy bone cells are
replaced by malignant ones).

What are the Risk Factors?

1-Primary Bone Cancer:
the cause is unknown but below are the possible risk factors

Hereditary factors

Environmental factors

Excessive Injuries or trauma

Radiation exposure

2- Metastatic Bone Cancer

Most common primary sites are breast, lung , prostate and Multiple Myeloma

Diagnosis

1. Patient history and physical examination

2. Radiological studies like x-ray of the affected bone, Ultrasound, CT
(computed tomography) scans, bone scan, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
or, PET scan (Positron Emission tomography Scan) to detect if cancer has
spread to other organs .

3. Biopsy weather Needle Biopsy or Surgical Biopsy from the tumor itself to
detect the type of cancer.

How is bone cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health

1. Surgery

The bone or bones affected by primary tumors may need to be surgically
removed. This may involve amputation, although in some cases only the tumor
is removed and the remaining bone is reinforced with a metal prosthesis.

Orthopedic surgery may be necessary to repair bone fractures.

2- Chemotherapy.

3- Radiotherapy

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer recurrence or spread,
as well as possible side effects of certain treatments. During these
visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms, examine you, and may order
blood tests or imaging studies such as CT (computed tomography) scans if
needed. This is the time for you to ask your health care team any questions
you need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

What are Brain tumors?

Most brain tumors are secondary to cancer which spread from other part of
body. Primary malignant brain tumors are rare, accounting for less than 2
percent of all cancers.

Overall, the chance that a person will develop a malignant tumor of the
brain or spinal cord in his or her lifetime is less than 1%

Types of brain tumor

Primary brain tumors can start in any of the different types of tissues or
cells within the brain or spinal cord. Some tumors contain a mixture of
cell types. Tumors in different areas of the central nervous system may be
treated differently and have a different prognosis.

Gliomas:

Glioma is a general term for a group of tumors that start in glial cells. A
number of tumors can be considered gliomas, including glioblastoma
(previously known as glioblastoma multiform), astrocytomas,
oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas.Gliomas count About 4 out of 10 of all
brain tumors are gliomas

Astrocytomas:

Tumors that arise within the brain itself start in glial cells. Most
astrocytomas can spread widely throughout the brain and blend with the
normal brain tissue, which can make them very hard to remove by surgery.
Sometimes they spread along the CSF pathways. It is very rare for them to
spread outside of the brain or spinal cord.

Astrocytomas are often classified as low grade, intermediate grade, or high
grade,based on how the cells look under the microscope.

1- Low-grade astrocytomas
are the slowest growing.

2- Intermediate-grade astrocytomas, or anaplastic astrocytomas

, grow at a moderate rate.

3-The highest-grade astrocytoma, known as glioblastoma (or
glioblastomamultiforme),

is the fastest growing. These tumors make up about two-thirds of
astrocytomas and are the most common malignant brain tumors of adults.

Oligodendrogliomas:

These tumors start in brain cells called oligodendrocytes. Like
astrocytomas, most of these can grow into nearby brain tissue and cannot be
completely removed by surgery. Very aggressive forms of these tumors are
known as anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Only about 3% of brain tumors are
oligodendrogliomas

Ependymomas:

These tumors arise from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles
ependymomas usually do not grow into (infiltrate) normal brain tissue. As a
result, some (but not all) ependymomas can be completely removed and cured
by surgery .Very aggressive forms of these tumors are known as anaplastic
ependymomas and usually cannot be cured surgically. Only about 2% of brain
tumors are ependymomas

Meningiomas:

Meningiomas arise from the meninges, the layers of tissue that surround the
outer part of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas account for about 1
out of 3 primary brain and spinal cord tumors. They are the most common
brain tumor in adults. About 4 out of 5 meningiomas are benign, and most of
these can be cured by surgery. But some meningiomas grow very close to
vital structures within the brain and cannot be cured by surgery alone

Medulloblastoma:

They are fast-growing tumors and often spread throughout the cerebrospinal
fluid pathways, Medulloblastomas occur much more often in children than in
adults.

Gangliogliomas:

These are very uncommon in adults and have a high rate of cure by surgery
alone or surgery combined with radiation therapy

Schwannomas (neurilemomas):

These are usually benign tumors. They can arise from any cranial nerve.
When they form from the cranial nerve responsible for balance near the
cerebellum they are called vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas.
They may also arise from spinal nerves after they have left the spinal
cord. Schwannomas make up about 9% of all CNS tumors

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas:

Lymphomas start in lymphocytes (one of the main cell types of the immune
system). Some central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas occur in people with
immune system problems

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Lymphomas start in lymphocytes (one of the main cell
types of the immune system). Some central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas
occur in people with immune system problems

Symptoms

1- Frequent headaches.

2- Vomiting, with or without nausea.

3- Blurred or double vision.

4- Seizures.

5- Impaired thinking, mental confusion, or even coma.

6- Other symptoms depend on the location of the tumor within the brain and
may include weakness or unsteadiness, paralysis on one side of the body,
dizziness, speech difficulty, memory loss, and loss of the sense of smell
or hearing, or personality change.

What are the risk factors?

The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown.

Metastatic tumors may spread from cancers of the lungs, liver, intestines,
breast, skin, or other parts of the body to the brain

Preventions

Get regular checkups to detect cancers elsewhere in the body before they
have a chance to spread to CNS.

Diagnosis

Patient history and physical examination.

Radiological studies like, CT (computed tomography), or MRI (magnetic
resonance imaging) may be done to locate the tumor.

Lumbar puncture (the use of a needle to remove and analyze a sample from
the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord).

A biopsy of the tumor will most likely be necessary to confirm the
diagnosis.

Electroencephalography may be used to measure and assess electrical
activity in the brain.

Cerebral arteriography may be used in preparation for surgery to outline
the arteries supplying blood to the tumor.

How is brain tumor treated?

The effectiveness of treatment depends on a number of factors including the
type, size, and location of the tumor. Treatment is based on the type of
tumor, and in many cases a combination of treatments is used. Such as

Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Targeted therapy

Surgery alone or combined with radiation therapy may cure many tumors,
including some low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, craniopharyngiomas,
gangliogliomas, and meningiomas.

Tumors that tend to spread diffusely into nearby brain tissue such as
anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas are not cured by surgery. But
surgery can reduce the amount of tumor that needs to be treated by
radiation or chemotherapy, which can help these treatments work better.
This may help prolong life even if all of the tumor can’t be removed

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments.

During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms, examine you, and
may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT (computed tomography)
scans.

Follow-up is needed to check for cancer recurrence or spread, as well as
possible side effects of certain treatments. This is the time for you to
ask your health care team any questions you need answered and to discuss
any concerns you might have.

What is Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer involving lymphatic tissue in the
lymph node, spleen, tonsils, thymus, and bone marrow; lead to proliferation
of abnormal lymphocytes and reduces the number of healthy lymphocytes.
These changes cause impairment of the immune system leaves the body
susceptible to serious infection.

Hodgkin’s disease, more common among men, most often affects those between
ages 15 and 35, and those older than 55.

Types of Hodgkin lymphoma:

1-Nodular lymphocyte-predominant

2- Classical: Most Hodgkin lymphomas are the classical
type. The classical type is broken down into four subtypes:

Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma.

Mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma.

Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin lymphoma

Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Symptoms:

A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems do not go
away:

1- Painless, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin

2- Fever for unknown reason.

3- Drenching night sweats.

4- Weight loss for unknown reason.

5- Itchy skin

6- Feeling very tired.

What are the risk factors?

Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having
risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. People who think
they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor.

Risk factors for adult Hodgkin lymphoma include the following:

Being in young or late adulthood

Being male

Being infected with the Epstein-Barr virus

Having a first-degree relative (parent, brother, or sister) with Hodgkin
lymphoma

Diagnose of Hodgkin lymphoma.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

1- Patient history and physical examination

2- Blood test this will check complete blood counts, and blood chemistry

3- Lymph node biopsy: The removal of all or part of a lymph node. One of
the following types of biopsies may be done:

Excisional biopsy:
The removal of an entire lymph node.

Incisional biopsy:
The removal of part of a lymph node.

Core biopsy:
The removal of part of a lymph node using a wide needle.

A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells,
especially Reed-Sternberg cells. Reed-Sternberg cells are common in
classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

4- Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

5- Immunophenotyping: A test in which the cells in a sample of blood or
bone marrow are looked at under a microscope to ????nd out the origin of
malignant lymphocytes.

6 – Radiological studies like x-ray, CT (computed tomography) scans of
neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvic or CT/PET (positron emission tomography
scan) may be done to determine extent of disease.

How is Hodgkin lymphoma treated?

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the
following:

The patient’s symptoms.

The stage of the cancer The type of Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood test results.

The patient’s age, gender, and general health.

Whether the cancer is recurrent or progressive.

1-Treatment of early favorable Hodgkin lymphoma

May include the following:

Combination chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy to parts of the
body

with cancer.

Radiation therapy alone to areas of the body with cancer

2-Treatment of advanced favorable Hodgkin lymphoma

May include the following:

Combination chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy to parts of the
body with cancer

Clinical trials of new combinations of chemotherapy.

3-Treatment of advanced unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma

May include the following:

Combination chemotherapy.

Clinical trials of new combinations of chemotherapy.

A clinical trial of high-dose chemotherapy

4-Treatment of recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma

May include the following:

Combination chemotherapy.

Combination chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell

transplant with or without radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality
of life.

Targeted therapy and Immunotherapy

A clinical trial

How often I need to follow up?

You’ll need regular checkups after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Your
doctor will watch your recovery closely and check for recurrence of the
lymphoma. Checkups help make sure that any changes in your health are noted
and treated as needed. Checkups may include a physical exam, lab tests,
chest x-rays, and other procedures. Between scheduled visits, you should
contact the doctor right away if you have any health problems.

Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma during the First Trimester of Pregnancy

When Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy, it
does not necessarily mean that the woman will be advised to end the
pregnancy. Each woman’s treatment will depend on the stage of the lymphoma,
how fast it is growing and her wishes.

For women who choose to continue the pregnancy, treatment of Hodgkin
lymphoma during the First trimester of pregnancy
 may include the following:

Watchful waiting when the cancer is above the diaphragm and is
slow-growing.

Delivery may be induced when the fetus is 32 to 36 weeks old so the mother
can begin treatment.

Radiation therapy above the diaphragm. (A lead shield is used to protect
the fetus from the radiation as much as possible.)

Systemic chemotherapy using one or more drugs.

Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma during the Second Half of Pregnancy

When Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy, most
women can delay treatment until after the baby is born. Treatment of
Hodgkin lymphoma during the second half of pregnancy may include the
following:

1-Watchful waiting, with plans to induce delivery when the fetus is 32 to
36 weeks old.

2- Systemic chemotherapy using one or more drugs.

3- Steroid therapy.

4- Radiation therapy to relieve breathing problems caused by a large tumor
in the chest.

Kidney cancer is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women,
most people with this cancer are older, the incidence is highest in people
between the ages of 55 and 84 and risk is higher in men than in women.

Types of kidney cancer

1- Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
arises in tiny kidney tubules and accounts for 85 percent of all kidney
cancers

2- Transitional cell cancer (TCC)
arises in the renal pelvis and may also be found in the ureter and bladder.

3- Wilms’ tumor
usually affects children under age five

Symptoms

1- Blood in the urine. Urine may appear dark, smoky, or cloudy. However,
early in the development of the cancer, the blood may only be detected by
urinalysis

2- Abdominal, back, or Flank pain.

3-Abdominal mass in an infant or child may indicate Wilms’ tumor.

4- General feeling of poor health.

5- Fever.

6- Loss of appetite and weight loss

What are the risk factors?

The cause of kidney cancer is unknown but there are some risk factors

Smoking

Obesity

Hereditary

Workplace exposure to certain substances like asbestos, cadmium,
herbicides, benzene, and organic solvents, particularly trichloroethylene.

Long term dialysis

Overuse of pain relievers

Preventions

In many cases the cause of kidney cancer is not known, and in some other
cases (such as with inherited conditions that raise kidney cancer risk),
even when the cause is known it may not be preventable.

But there are some ways you may be able to reduce your risk of this
disease.

1- Stop smoking

2- Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising and choosing a diet high in
fruits and vegetables

3- Get treatment for high blood pressure may also reduce your chance of
getting this disease.

4- Avoiding workplace exposure

5- Avoid high doses or long-term use of analgesics unless recommended by a
doctor.

Diagnosis

1- Patient history and physical examination

2- Urine is examined for blood or the presence of cancer cells.

3- Radiological studies like Ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) scans,
bone scan, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to determine the
nature of a kidney abnormality and to see if cancer has spread.

4- Cystoscopy (the use of a thin lighted tube inserted through the urethra
into the bladder) may be used to exclude bladder cancer.

How is kidney cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health

1- Surgery by removal of the affected kidney (nephrectomy) is the main
treatment for most renal cell carcinomas in stage I, II, or III or even on
stage IV surgery may still be a part of treatment

2- Radiation may be used for palliation.

3- Targeted drugs are proving to be especially important in diseases such
as kidney cancer, where chemotherapy has not been shown to be very
effective

4- Wilms’ tumor responds well to a combination of nephrectomy, radiation,
and chemotherapy.

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms,
examine you, and may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT
(computed tomography) scans. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer
recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain
treatments. This is the time for you to ask your health care team any
questions you need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

What is Laryngeal Cancer?

Laryngeal cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the larynx (also known
as the voice box). Men are affected more often than women.

Symptoms

The symptoms of cancer of the larynx depend mainly on the size of the tumor
and where it is in the larynx. Symptoms may include the following:

1. Hoarseness or other voice changes it is essential to be alert to
persistent hoarseness.

2. A lump in the neck

3. A sore throat or feeling that something is stuck in your throat

4. A cough that does not go away

5. Problems breathing

6. Bad breath

7. An earache

8. Weight loss

Risk factors for larynx cancer?

1. Age. age of 55 and older.

2. Gender. Men are four times more likely than women

3. Smoking

4. Alcohol.

5. A personal history of head and neck cancer.

6. Occupation. Workers exposed to sulfuric acid mist, nickel and asbestos
have an increased risk of laryngeal cancer.

Diagnosis

If you have symptoms of cancer of the larynx, the doctor may do some or all
of the following exams:

1. Patient history and Physical exam.

2. Laryngoscope. Looking down the throat using a small, long-handled mirror
or lighted tube to check for abnormal areas and to see if your vocal cords
move as they should. This test does not hurt. The doctor may spray a local
anesthesia in your throat to keep you from gagging.

3. Radiological studies like x-ray, CT (computed tomography) scans, bone
scan, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to determine the
nature of larynx abnormality and to see if cancer has spread.

4. Biopsy. If laryngoscope exam revealed an abnormal area, the doctor may
remove a small sample of tissue. This procedure is called a biopsy. Biopsy
can be performed under local or general Anesthesia. A pathologist then
looks at the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells. A biopsy
is the only sure way to know if a tumor is cancerous.

How is larynx cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health.

Laryngeal cancer can almost always be cured if detected early enough.
Treatment is most successful when the tumor is restricted to vocal card.
The outlook is less optimistic for cancers that have spread from the larynx
to nearby lymph nodes or through the bloodstream to other parts of the body

The treatment modalities are:-

1. Radiation therapy alone:
Radiation therapy is used alone for small tumors or for patients who cannot
have chemotherapy.

2. Radiation therapy combined with surgery:
Radiation therapy may be used to shrink a large tumor before surgery or to
destroy cancer cells that may remain in the area after surgery. If a tumor
grows back after surgery or Radiation, it is often treated with radiation.

3. Radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. . Follow-up is needed to check for cancer recurrence or
spread, as well as possible side effects of certain treatments. During
these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms, examine you, and may
order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT (computed tomography) scans
if needed. If you had radiation therapy or a partial laryngectomy, the
doctor will also examine you with a laryngoscope.

Treatments for laryngeal cancer can affect the thyroid. A blood test can
evaluate thyroid hormone. If the level is low, you may need to take thyroid
hormone pills.

This is the time for you to ask your health care team any questions you
need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

Leukemia is Cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes large numbers
of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream

Types of Leukemia:

The different types of leukemia are classified according to how quickly the
disease tends to progress and based on type of white cell affected and if
it is acute or chronic.

The acute leukemias
are rapidly progressing diseases, usually requiring immediate treatment.

The chronic leukemias
have two phases, gradual and acute. During the gradual phase, which may
last for years, symptoms often do not occur, in acute phase of chronic
leukemia the symptoms occur and leukemia rapidly .

Acute and chronic leukemias are further distinguished by the type of white
cell affected to:

1- Acute myelogenous leukemia( AML):
affect myelocytes

2- Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML):
affect myelocytes

3- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL):
affect lymphocytes

4- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL):
affect lymphocytes

5- Hairy cell leukemia
is a rare chronic leukemia marked by the production of abnormal

lymphocytes with irregular hairlike protrusions.

Symptoms

No symptoms associated with the early stages of the chronic leukemia.

General feeling of poor health

Fever and night sweats.

Severe fatigue, pallor, and breathing dif????culty,

Headaches and seizures

What are the risk factors?

1- The cause of leukemia is unknown

2- Hereditary factors may play a role.

3- Some industrial chemicals, such as benzene, a petroleum derivative.

4- Prolonged exposure to x-rays or radiation (e.g cancer treatment)

5- Chemotherapy, such as the alkylating agents mechlorethamine,
chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan.

6- The human T-cell leukemia virus is involved in a rare type of leukemia
known as adult Tcell leukemia

Preventions

Limit exposure to toxic chemicals, as well as to x-rays and other forms of
radiation.

Diagnosis

Examination of the number of red cells, platelets, and different types of
white cells in the blood.

Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy. A sample of bone marrow is usually taken
from the Pelvic bone.

Cytogenetic studies are performed to determine the presence of the
chromosome abnormalities.

How is Leukemia treated?

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on

The age of the patient.

The subtype of leukemia

Whether the patient received chemotherapy in the past to treat a different
cancer.

Whether there is a history of a blood disorder such as myelodysplastic
syndrome.

Whether the leukemia has spread to the central nervous system.

Whether the leukemia has been treated before or recurred

Four types of standard treatment are used:

1- Chemotherapy

2- Stem cell transplant

Stem cell transplant is a method of giving chemotherapy and replacing
blood-forming cells that are abnormal or destroyed by the cancer treatment.
Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow
of the patient in case of autologous bone marrow transplantation or from a
donor in case of allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

After the chemotherapy is completed, the stem cells are given to the
patient through an infusion..

These re infused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body’s blood cells.

3–Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances
to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is one type of targeted therapy being studied
in the treatment of adult Leukemia. Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors are standard
treatment of CML.

Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) are anticancer drugs
that kill leukemia cells, stop the leukemia cells from dividing, or help
the leukemia cells mature into white blood cells.. These drugs are used in
the treatment of a subtype of AML called acute promyelocytic leukemia.

How often I need to follow up?

You’ll need regular checkups after treatment Leukemia. Your doctor will
watch your recovery closely and check for recurrence of the leukemia.
Checkups help make sure that any changes in your health are noted and
treated as needed. Checkups may include a physical exam, lab tests, and
bone marrow aspiration. Between scheduled visits, you should contact the
doctor right away if you have any health problem

Lung cancer is considered the top of the most common cancer in both men and
women.

Most lung cancer starts in the lining of the bronchi and associated with
smoking.

Types of lung cancer

There are 2 main types of lung cancer and they are treated differently.

1- Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
account for 20% of lung cancer which have more tendency to metastatic(
spread to other organ) at time of diagnosis

2- Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
most common one and account for 80% of lung cancer. There 3 sub-types of
non small cell lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma:
About 25% to 30% of all lung cancers are Squamous cell carcinoma type. They
are linked to smoking and tend to be found in the middle of the lungs, near
a bronchus.

Adenocarcinoma:
About 40% of lung cancers are Adenocarcinoma type. They usually found in
the outer part of the lung.

Large-cell (undifferentiated) carcinoma:
About 10% to 15% of lung cancers are Large-cell (undifferentiated)
carcinoma. They start in any part of the lung and tend to grow and spread
quickly.

Symptoms:

Early lung cancer often does not cause symptoms. But as the cancer grows,
common symptoms may include:

Persistent cough

Shortness of breath

Persistent chest pain

Coughing up blood

Hoarseness of voice

Frequent lung infections

Tiredness

Weight loss

Swollen neck and face

Swallowing difficulty.

What are the risk factors?

Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of primary lung cancer.
Over 90 percent of cases are caused by smoking. Nonsmokers have only a
small risk, and those who quit smoking greatly reduce their risk.

Air pollution, including so-called passive or second-hand smoke.

Exposure to toxic substances, such as radon and other radioactive gases,
asbestos, and arsenic, may cause lung cancer.

Chronic bronchitis is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer

Family history of lung cancer: People with a father, mother, brother, or
sister who had lung cancer may be at slightly increased risk of the
disease, even if they don’t smoke.

Personal history of lung cancer: People who have had lung cancer are at
increased risk of developing a second lung tumor.

Age over 65: Most people are older than 65 years when diagnosed with lung
cancer. Most cases occur between ages 45 and 75, after years of exposure to
cigarette smoke or other pollutants.

Prevention:

Abstain from smoking; try to limit your exposure to second-hand smoke and
air pollution.

Diagnosis:

If you have a symptom that suggests lung cancer, your doctor must find out
whether it’s from cancer or something else

Patient history and physical examination.

Sputum sample.

Radiological studies like an x-ray of the chest, CT (computed tomography)
scans, bone scan, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to
determine the nature of a lung abnormality and to see if cancer has spread.

Bronchoscopy (passage of a thin, hollow, flexible tube through the mouth
into the wind pipe to allow the main bronchial passages to be viewed).

A biopsy of cancerous tissue is essential for diagnosis and to guide
treatment decisions.

How is lung cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health

Loco-regional therapy:
Surgery and radiation therapy are loco-regional therapies. When lung cancer
has spread to other parts of the body, local therapy may be used to control
the disease in those special areas. For example, lung cancer that spreads
to the brain may be controlled with radiation therapy to Brain.

Systemic therapy:
Chemotherapy and targeted therapy are systemic therapies. The drugs enter
the bloodstream and destroy or control cancer throughout the body.

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms,
examine you, and may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT
(computed tomography) scans. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer
recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain
treatments.

This is the time for you to ask your health care team any questions you
need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

What is Multiple Myloma?

Plasma cell neoplasms such as multiple myelom and solitary plasmacytoma are
diseases in which there are too many plasma cells, which are unable to do
their usual work in the bone marrow. As result normal Bone marrow functions
are affected.

Symptoms:

1. Pain, often in the back or ribs.

2. Feeling very tired

3. Fever

4. Easy bruising or bleeding.

5. Trouble breathing.

6. Loss of appetite.

7. Nausea or vomiting.

8. Feeling thirsty.

9. Frequent urination.

10. Constipation.

11. Feeling very tired.

12. Muscle weakness.

13. Restlessness.

14. Mental confusion or trouble thinking.

What are the risk factors?

The cause of multiple myeloma is unknown, although genetic factors may play
a role.

Risk increases with age and exposure to radiation.

Prevention

Try to minimize exposure to radiation.

Diagnosis

The following tests and procedures may be used:

Physical exam and history

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: The removal of bone marrow, blood, and a
small piece of bone by inserting a hollow needle into the pelvis bone or
breast bone.pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a
microscope to look for abnormal cells.

Radiological studies like X-ray:

Blood test which includes, Complete blood count (CBC) with differential
& blood chemistry test Blood or urine immunoglobulin studies.

6: Beta 2 microgobulin

7- Cytogenetic analysis: A test in which cells in a sample of blood or bone
marrow are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the
chromosomes.

How is Multiple Myloma treated?

Several types of standard treatment are used:

1- Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of
cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from
dividing.

2- Corticosteroid therapy

Corticosteroids are steroids that have antitumor effects in lymphomas and
lymphoid leukemias.

3- Thalidomide and lenalidomide

Thalidomide and lenalidomide are drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors that
prevent the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

4- Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to
identify and attack specific marker on cancer. Proteasome inhibitor therapy
is targeted therapy used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other
plasma cell neoplasms.

5- High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant

Stem cell transplant is a method of giving chemotherapy and replacing
blood-forming cells that are abnormal or destroyed by the cancer treatment.
Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow
of the patient in case of autologous bone marrow transplantation or from a
donor in case of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. After the
chemotherapy is completed, the stem cells are given to the patient through
an infusion.. These re infused stem cells grow into (and restore) the
body’s blood cells.

6- Radiation therapy

The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the
cancer being treated.

How often I need to follow up?

You’ll need regular checkups after treatment for multiple myeloma. Your
doctor will watch your recovery closely and check for recurrence of the
Myeloma. Checkups help make sure that any changes in your health are noted
and treated as needed. Checkups may include a physical exam, lab tests,
chest x-rays, and other procedures. Between scheduled visits, you should
contact the doctor right away if you have any health.

What is the Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL)?

Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the lymph node and other
lymphoid tissue. The abnormal cell continuously divides and makes more and
more cells. The abnormal lymphoid cells lose their normal function and
don’t protect the body from infections or other diseases.

Types of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Low Grade NHL:
Such as follicular grade 1 and 2, Small cell Lymphocytic , MF are not
curable but has indolent course and prolong survival.

Intermediate Grade NHL:
Such diffuse large B cell, Follicular grade III and Mantle cell Lymphoma.
Usually have aggressive course, curable in more than 50% of case with
Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy.

High Grade NHL:
Such as lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt’s Lymphoma, have very aggressive
course but curable almost 70% of cases with intensive chemotherapy.

Symptoms

1. Painless, gradual swelling of the lymph nodes, especially in the neck,
underarms, or groin.

2. Enlarged tonsils and adenoids.

3. Fever, chills, or night sweats.

4. Breathing dif????culty and coughing in children.

5. Persistent fatigue.

6. Weight loss and loss of appetite.

7. Rarely, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.

What are the risk factors?

1. The cause of NHL is unknown, although there is evidence that a viral
infection may be involved.

2. Incidence appears to be higher in those with immune system disorders or
those receiving immunosuppressant drugs (used after organ transplants, for
example).

Preventions

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not preventable.

Diagnosis

1. Patient history and physical examination.

2. Lymph node or bone marrow biopsies, in which tissue is removed for
microscopic examination.

3. Other tests, including blood tests, liver and spleen scans, chest
x-rays, or abdominal CT (computed tomography) scans to determine the extent
of lymph node and other organ involvement.

How is NHL treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on:

1. The type of lymphoma (for example, follicular lymphoma)

2. Stage (where the lymphoma is found)

3. How quickly the cancer is growing (whether it is indolent or aggressive
lymphoma)

4. Age

5- Whether you have other health problems

Treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma without symptoms

You may not need treatment for the cancer right away. The doctor watches
your health closely so that treatment can start when you begin to have
symptoms. Not getting cancer treatment right away is called watchful
waiting.

If you have indolent lymphoma with symptoms,
you will probably receive

1. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

2. Radiation therapy may be used for people with Stage I or Stage II
lymphoma.

3. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant for recurrent disease,

Treatment of aggressive lymphoma

The treatment is usually

1. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy..

2. Radiation therapy also may be used.

3. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant

Stem cell transplant is a method of giving chemotherapy and replacing
blood-forming cells that are abnormal or destroyed by the cancer treatment.
Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow
of the patient in case of autologous bone marrow transplantation or from a
donor in case of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. After the
chemotherapy is completed, the stem cells are given to the patient through
an infusion. These re infused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body’s
blood cells.

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms,
examine you, and may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT
(computed tomography) scans. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer
recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain
treatments. This is the time for you to ask your health care team any
questions you need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

What is pancreatic cancer?

Pancreatic cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the pancreas.

Pancreatic cancer impairs the digestive process and may block the bile duct
as it grows.

Types of pancreatic cancer

1. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma:
Pancreatic cancer has aggressive course

2. Neuro-endocrine tumor of Pancreases:
These tumors usually have indolent course.

Symptoms

Poor appetite; weight loss.

Pain in the upper-central or right abdomen. The pain may spread to the back
and may be relieved by sitting up and leaning forward.

Itching skin.

Nausea and vomiting.

Diarrhea or constipation, dark-colored urine, or pale stools.

A feeling of fullness.

Fatigue, depression, and mood swings.

Signs of hypoglycemia such Shakiness, irritability, profuse perspiration,
chills, dizziness, or muscle spasms in patients with an islet cell tumor

What are the Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer?

No one knows the exact causes of pancreatic cancer. However studies have
found the following risk factors:

Age: Most pancreatic cancers occur in people over the age of 60.

Smoking

Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer occurs more often in people who have diabetes
than in people who do not.

Being male

Chronic pancreatitis

Diagnosis

Patient history and Physical exam:

Lab tests: The doctor may take blood, urine, and stool samples to check for
liver enzyme and other substances.

Radiological studies like, Ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) scans, bone
scan, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography):

Biopsy

How is pancreatic cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer and on
your overall health

A cure is sometimes possible with early diagnosis and surgical removal.
However, pancreatic cancer is extremely difficult to diagnose and has
usually spread by the time symptoms appear, so cures are uncommon.

However, other treatments may be able to control the disease and help
patients live longer and feel better. When a cure or control of the disease
is not possible, some patients and their doctors choose palliative therapy.

1- Surgical removal of the tumor
is possible with a relatively small tumor that has not yet spread, which
may prolong survival time. Surgery may involve removal of the entire
pancreas as well as a portion of the small intestine; some times Surgery
use to bypass a bile duct blocked by the tumor may be performed to relieve
symptoms.

2- Chemotherapy in combination with radiation
therapy may destroy cancerous cells and ease symptoms.

3- Palliative therapy aims to improve quality
of life by controlling pain and other problems caused by this disease.

4- Tablets containing pancreatic enzymes
may be prescribed if food is poorly absorbed because of a blockage of
pancreatic secretions

How often I need to follow up?

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms,
examine you, and may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT
(computed tomography) scans. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer
recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain
treatments. This is the time for you to ask your health care team any
questions you need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.

Testicular Cancer

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What is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is the growth of malignant cells in one or both
testicles.

It is most often found in young men between the ages of 15 and 34 and quite
rare beyond age 40. This type of cancer can be treated and very often
cured.

Types of testicular tumors

1- Germ cell tumors
are the most common type of testicular tumors. Germ cell tumors grow in the
cells that make sperm.

2- Stromal tumors
grow in other parts of the testicles like the cells that make hormones.

3- Secondary testicular
tumors are from cancer that has spread to the testicles from other parts of
the body

Symptoms

1- A firm, painless lump or nodule in one of the testicles.

2- A feeling of heaviness or hardness in a testicle.

3- Rarely, testicular pain or hydrocele (fluid in scrotum around the
testes).

4- Breast growth or nipple tenderness.

5- In advanced cases: swollen lymph glands; abdominal or back pain; urinary
difficulty; fatigue; weight loss; cough or breathing difficulty (due to
spread of cancer to the lungs).

What are the Risk factors?

Undescended testicle: One of the main risk factors for testicular cancer

Family history: A family history of testicular cancer increases the risk.

HIV infection: There is some evidence that men infected with HIV (human
immunodeficiency virus) have an increased risk of testicular cancer

Cancer of the other testicle: Men who have been cured of cancer in one
testicle have an increased risk (about a 3% to 4% chance) of getting cancer
in the other testicle.

Age: Nine out of 10 cases of testicular cancers occur in men between the
ages of 20 and 54. But this cancer can affect males of any age, including
infants and older men

History of inguinal hernia in childhood and testicular inflammation that
occurs in conjunction with mumps.

Preventions

There is no way to prevent testicular cancer, but vigilant monthly
self-examination can aid in early detection, which promises a very
favorable prognosis. The best time to perform self-examination is after a
warm shower, when the scrotum is soft and pliable.

Diagnosis

Patient history and physical examination

An ultrasound scan can confirm the presence of a solid mass.

Chest x-rays and CT (computed tomography) scans of the abdomen and pelvis
are used to evaluate the stage of any tumors and to determine whether
cancer has spread beyond the testicle.

Blood tests for specific biochemical markers of testicular cancer can be
used to track the response to treatment and detect the recurrence of
cancer.

How is Testicular Cancer treated?

The type of your treatment will depend on the stage and cell type of the
tumor and on your overall health

The 3 main methods of treatment for testicular cancer are:

1- Surgery
is typically the first treatment for all testicular cancers losing a
testicle usually

has no effect on a man’s ability to get an erection and have sex

2- Radiation therapy
to retroperitoneal lymph nodes is mainly used for patients with seminoma,
which is very sensitive to radiation and it does not seem to work well for
non-seminomas

3- Chemotherapy
is used if either type of cancer in advances cases.

Treatment and Sexuality

Men who discover they have testicular cancer and wish to have children in
the future may consider preserving sperm in a sperm bank prior to
treatment.

The removed testicle may be replaced with prosthesis; fertility is
maintained if the other testicle is unaffected. If need be, regular hormone
injections can be given to preserve normal sexual functioning

How often I need to follow up

After your treatment is over, it is very important to keep all follow-up
appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms,
examine you, and may order blood tests or imaging studies such as CT
(computed tomography) scans. Follow-up is needed to check for cancer
recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain
treatments. This is the time for you to ask your health care team any
questions you need answered and to discuss any concerns you might have.